Definition of Practice

Julie F. Troum, Ph.D.

What is practice?

  1. By itself, not inherently enjoyable (requires effort; no immediate reward)

    (Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Romer, 1993; Lehmann, Sloboda, & Woody, 2002)
  2. A skill that can be taught
    (Lehmann & Davidson, 2002)
  3. Improvement of skill is expected
    (Kostka, 2002)
  4. Ā Self-teaching
    (Jorgensen, 1995)
  5. Solitary activity
    (Lehmann, 1997)
  6. Lack of a coach as usually found in sports
    (Lehmann, 1997)

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